2014.01.19 Asia Triennial Manchester – Taipei Workshop | 英國「曼徹斯特亞洲三年展」台北工作坊 2pm

manchester 2014 edm

01.19 英國「曼徹斯特亞洲三年展」台北工作坊

(For English please scroll down)
(Chinese/English interpretation provided |演講備有中英翻譯)

 

2:00~4:00

座談I : 歷史灰燼中被掩蓋的全球化潛殖民及其合法性剝削 

主持人姚瑞中(台灣藝術家)

與談者:高俊宏(台灣藝術家)、鄭美雅(台北當代藝術中心理事長)、姜節泓(曼徹斯特亞洲三年展策展人)、鄭慧華(策展人)

4:00~4:30

中場休息 

4:30~6:30

座談II : 作為批判社會宰制的藝術行動及其寓言

主持人姚瑞中(台灣藝術家)

座談者-陳界仁(台灣藝術家)、孫懿柔(台灣藝術家)Lindsay Taylor(曼徹斯特亞洲三年展策展人)Sarah Fisher (曼徹斯特亞洲三年展策展人)    

 

講者簡介

姚瑞中1969年生於台北,1994年畢業於台灣國立藝術學院美術系理論組。姚瑞中1997年以攝影作品《本土佔領行動》代表台灣參加威尼斯雙年展,在國際大放異彩,攝影是他持續不斷的創作方式,無論是單純的平面影像,或是結合裝置的立體陳設,姚瑞中利用影像揭露隱藏於表像下的真實,探討歷史、社會等不同層面的議題;攝影對於姚瑞中,除了具收集個人經驗和回憶的記錄功能,更肩負改變社會的義務與責任,承載使人警醒、促進社會政治與經濟等發展的力量,企盼突破鏡頭的框界範圍,喚起觀者對所呈議題的關注與重視。曾以楊德昌電影《獨立時代》獲金馬獎最佳美術指導提名。2010年-2013之間,姚瑞中帶領學生進行全台蚊子館調查案,每年皆彙整出超過一百件的「蚊子館」案例,編輯出版厚達600頁的「海市蜃樓-台灣閒置公共設施抽樣踏查I-III」,勾勒出台灣社會的荒謬現狀,體現出「錯誤的政策比貪污還可怕」之事實。

高俊宏,1973年生於台北,2001年畢業於國立台北藝術大學美術系。自九十年代初,高俊宏便一直以藝術行動作為其創作的媒介。2004年,他獲文建會贊助前往德國法蘭克福、杜塞道夫、科隆、卡塞爾、漢諾威、不萊梅及漢堡等地進行創作。他現為國立台南藝術大學創作理論研究所博士生、東亞藝術佔領行動研究計畫主持人及台北當代藝術中心 TCAC理事。

鄭美雅,生於1975,居住並工作於台北。現為獨立策展人,台北當代藝術中心理事長。曾任台北當代藝術館策展人(2006-2008))。精選策展經歷:「擴增世界」第六屆台北數位藝術節國際邀請展(2011,剝皮寮歷史街區),「未來事件交易所」(2012,與姚嘉善共同策展,台北當代藝術中心),「遊牧影展錄影藝術特輯」(2010,台北當代藝術中心)。近期展覽計畫:「第六屆皇后雙年展」(2013,與岩崎仁美共同策展,皇后美術館,紐約。)她關注藝術生產中勞動與價值的交換機制及權力關係,以及藝術機制本身的系統性問題。她試圖討論藝術機構可能的開放性架構,以及它作為一個運作機制,如何作用於藝術體系。據此,她共同參與了台北當代藝術中心的成立及運作,試圖發展出一個開放性架構,以群體合作的模式,凝聚一個藝術社群,並共同營運這個實驗性的獨立機構。曾受邀參與講座包括2011曼徹斯特亞洲三年展-「未來機構」,德國萊比錫當代藝術館,亞太三年展(2012)等。近年發表文章散見於典藏今藝術、畫廊雜誌(中國)、藝術與投資(中國),主編讀本:「歐洲重要嗎?」(2013, 為芭芭拉.史黛娜擔任藝術總監的歐洲n次方計畫之一)。

姜節泓,現任英國伯明翰藝術與設計學院全職教授,博士研究生導師,該院中國視覺藝術中心創建人、主任,同時客座任教於中國美術學院(杭州)。姜節泓近年策劃的當代藝術展覽有《第四屆廣州三年展主題展:見所未見》(廣州,2012)《關係I》(廣州:廣東美術館,2011);《關係II》(北京:今日美術館,2011)、《沒有記憶的時代》和《我變故我在》(北京:中央美術學院美術館,2010)、《天使的傳說》(倫敦:紅樓基金會,2009)、以及《集體形象》(曼城:華人藝術中心;香港:香港大學美術博物館,2007)。近年的英文書著包括《負擔或遺贈:從中國文化大革命到當代藝術》(香港:香港大學出版社,2007)、《革命在繼續:來自中國的新藝術》(倫敦:藍燈書屋與薩奇畫廊,2008)、《紅:中國的文化革命》(倫敦:藍燈書屋,2010)和《見所未見》(廣州:嶺南美術出版社,2012),以及中文書著《十年曝光:中央美術學院和中國當代影像》和《關係:與十二位藝術家的書信集》(上海:錦繡文章出版社,2010)。

鄭慧華,獨立策展人,目前生活和工作於台灣台北。1997年至1999年於台灣輔仁大學擔任西洋美術史兼任講師。2000年至2005年,她旅居加拿大溫哥華,期間任台灣《今藝術》(ARTCO)雜誌特約作者,現為該雜誌特約主筆。鄭慧華2003年開始策劃展覽,包括:〈穿越─廢墟與文明〉(台北,2004)、〈2004台北國際雙年展:在乎現實嗎?〉(共同策劃)、〈疆界〉(台北,2006)、〈寶藏巖泡茶照相館/第五階段/勘誤:葉偉立、吳語心之個人與共同創作〉(溫哥華,2008)、〈親歷幻見〉(台北,2010)、第五十四屆威尼斯雙年展台灣館〈聽見,以及那些未被聽見的─台灣社會聲音圖景〉(威尼斯,2011)、〈「重見/建社會」專題系列策劃展〉(台北,2011─2013)、〈家非家─島嶼的短篇故事〉(曼徹斯特,2012)、第三屆台灣國際錄像藝術展〈憂鬱的進步〉(共同策劃,台北,2012),以及〈巫士與異見〉(香港,2013)。 2009年,鄭慧華進行為期一年的「批判性政治藝術創作及策展實踐研究」計劃,成立相關網站並出版《藝術與社會─當代藝術家專文與訪談》專書。2010年,她與台灣音樂文化評論者羅悅全(Jeph Lo)於台北共同成立「立方計劃空間」(TheCube Project Space),旨在深耕在地文化、研究台灣聲音文化、建立與藝術創作者的長期合作關係和推動台灣當代藝術與國際之對話和連結。

陳界仁,1960年生於台灣桃園,高職美工科畢業,目前生活和工作於台灣台北。陳界仁的創作大都以錄影裝置為主,曾參與許多國際重要大展。陳界仁認為台灣在經歷長期被支配與處於「多重主權重疊」的歷史與政治狀況下,人的內在精神已被徹底的「碎裂化」,並成為一個不斷「遺忘自身」與喪失「歷史性地思考與想像未來」的社會。1996年他重新恢復創作後,開始和在地人民、失業勞工、臨時工、移工、外籍配偶、無業青年、社會運動者進行合作,並藉由與被排除者、社會運動者和電影工作者,結合成相互學習的拍攝團隊與臨時社群,以及通過占據資方廠房、潛入法律禁區、運用廢棄物搭建虛構場景等行動,對已被景觀社會層層遮蔽的人民歷史與當代現實,提出另一種「再-想像」、「再-敘事」、「再-書寫」與「再-連結」的拍攝計劃。

孫懿柔,自由藝術工作者1988年生,畢業於台灣國立臺北藝術大學,重要個展《孫懿柔「美術館是平的」裝置影像文件展》(2011 台北當代藝術中心)於台北市立美術館前廣場舉辦為期5週的行為藝術,諷刺台北美術館的弊案。重要聯展包含「 2012中山公園計劃:回訪」及「城市記憶」(上海雙年展子計畫,中國上海與漳州)等。

Sarah Fisher現任中國當代中心(即中國藝術中心)館長,曾擔任藝術理事會的視覺藝術負責人、藝術機構獨立顧問、並曾在倫敦大學學院的Slade School of Art以及倫敦藝術大學的Chelsea College of Art擔任藝術家及講師。她目前任職理茲與利物浦的藝術及創意科技中心(Foundation for Art and Creative Technology)主席。

Lindsay Taylor 是一位英國策展人,她在索爾福大學(University of Salford)負責當代藝術收藏計畫及願景的發展與實踐。她促成了一些重要的合作,包含與曼徹斯特中國當代藝術中心(CFCCA)及與索爾福的跨領域組織領導藝術家Islington Mill的計畫。Taylor對於與”當下”相關的藝術實踐特別有興趣,而目前她專注於三個領域的作品: 1)當代中國藝術,與中國當代藝術中心合作並對”中國的世紀”做出回應;2) 數位相關,反應大學在MediaCityUK的存在與使用新科技的實踐;3) 北英格蘭的藝術家,支持並發展當地的藝術生態。Taylor從2013年五月開始擔任現職。她與中國當代藝術中心共同負責了曹斐的Haze and Fog,並為2014亞洲三年展持續合作。早先她在普雷斯頓的Harris Museum and Art Gallery 主導了數個當代藝術展,其中包含了新媒體藝術品的發展。她亦曾任職於Tate Liverpool與National Museums Liverpool。Taylor是IOU–約克郡一間為公共空間創作多元領域藝術品的公司–的董事會成員,也是曼徹斯特當代視覺藝術網(Contemporary Visual Arts Manchester Network)的聯合主席。

 

Asia Triennial Manchester – Taipei Workshop

2:00~4:00pm

Discussion I : The Concealed Global Colonization and Legal Exploitation beneath the Ashes of History

Host:  YAO Jui-Chung (Taiwanese Artist)

Speakers:

KAO Jun-honn  (Taiwanese Artist), CHENGMei-ya (Chair of Taipei Contemporary Art Center), JIANG Jie-hong (Curator of Asia Triennial Manchester), Amy CHENG (Curator)

 

4:00~4:30 pm

Interval

 

4:30~6:30 pm

Discussion II : The Art Performances Criticizing Social Domination and Their Messages

Host: YAO Jui-Chung (Taiwanese Artist)

Speakers: CHEN Chieh-Jen  (Taiwanese Artist), Sun Yi-Jou  (Taiwanese Artist), Lindsay Taylor, Sarah Fisher (Curator of Asia Triennial Manchester)

 

YAO Jui-Chung was born in 1969 in Taipei. He graduated from The National Institute of the Arts (Taipei National University of Arts) with a degree in Art Theory. In 1997, he represented Taiwan with his photography work, “Territory Takeover,” at the Venice Biennale, showed his talent and received great response. He keeps creating with the method, photography. No matter a simple flat image or a solid display combining with installations, Yao takes advantages of images to reveal the hidden reality to investigate different issues in the field of history, society and so on. For Yao, photography serves as many functions which not only collect personal experiences and record memories, but also shoulder the obligation and duty to improve the society. Photography has the power of awakening people and facilitating social, political and economic developments. He expects to break the boundary of lens frame and to raise audiences’ attention and concern about the issue. He was nominated as Best Art Director Award of Golden Horse Award by Edward Yang’s film, A Confucian Confusion. From 2010 to 2013, Yao led his students to conduct the investigation of the “Mosquitoes Buildings (disused spaces)” in Taiwan. Each year they discovered more than 100 cases and published a series of books, “Mirage I-III: Disused Public Property in Taiwan,” with more than 600 pages in each book. This research shows the absurd circumstances of Taiwan society and embodies the fact that “improper policies are more harmful than bribery and corruption”.

KAO Jun-Honn was born in Taipei in 1973 and graduated from Taipei National University of Art in 2001. Since 1990s, he has been using art action as a creating medium. In 2004, KAO received the fellowship from the Ministry of Culture and went to various cities in Germany for his creation. KAO is now a candidate of Doctoral Program in Art Creation and Theory in Tainan National University of the Art, a program director of Research in the occupation of Eastern Asia Art, and a board member of Taipei Contemporary Art Center (TCAC).

Meiya CHENG (b. 1975,) is a freelance curator, and now the chair of Taipei Contemporary Art Center. She lives and works in Taipei. She has worked as the curator of Museum of Contemporary Art Taipei (2006-2008.) Her selected curated exhibitions include : Augmenting the World (the 6th Taipei Digital Art Festival, international section, 2011), Trading Futures(co-curated with Pauline Yao, TCAC, 2012), Urban Nomad Film Festival Video Art Section (TCAC, 2010). Her latest exhibition is the 6th Queens International (co-curated with Hitomi Iwasaki, Queens Museum, NYC). Cheng focuses on the exchange mechanism and the power relationship of labor and value in the process of creating, and the structural issues in art production. She intends to discuss the possibilities of creating an open structure in institutions, and if such models could serve as a mechanism to create changes in the system. Therefore, she participates in the establishment and operation of Taipei Contemporary Art Center. She manages to develop an open structure in collaboration model so as to gather an art community and to operate this experimental art institution together. She was invited to participate in many forums and seminars, including Asia Triennial Manchester: Leipzig Museum of Contemporary Art (2011), Asia Pacific Triennial (2012) and so on. She has contributed in magazines ARTCO (Taiwan), Art and Investment (China) and Broadsheet (Australia)?. In 2013, she was the major editor of the reader, “Does Europe Matters?” (a part of the project, Europe (to the power of) n, directed by Barbara Steiner).

JIANG Jie-Hong is the professor of Chinese Art and the founding director of Chinese Visual Arts Centre at Birmingham Institute of Art and Design in Birmingham City University, where he is as well the Ph D. student supervisor. Also, he is a guest professor at the China Academy of Art (Hangzhou). Jiang Jie-Hong curates contemporary Chinese art exhibitions in China and the UK, including recently the Fourth Guangzhou Triennial: the Unseen (Guangzhou, 2012); Guanxi I (Guangzhou: Guangdong Museum of Art, 2011); Guanxi II (Beijing: Today Art Museum,2011); Beyond Memory: Contemporary Photography in China (Beijing: CAFA Museum of Art, 2010); the Tale of Angels (London: Red Mansion Foundation, 2009) and Collective Identity (Manchester: Chinese Arts Centre and Hong Kong: University Museum and Art Gallery, 2007). He is the editor of Burden or Legacy: from the Chinese Cultural Revolution to Contemporary Art (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2007), Guanxi: A Collection of Letters with Twelve Artists (Shanghai: Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing Group, 2011) and the Unseen (Guangzhou: Lingnan Art Publishing House, 2012), and the author of the Revolution Continues: New Art from China (London: Jonathan Cape and the Saatchi Gallery, 2008), Red: China’s Cultural Revolution (London: Jonathan Cape, 2010), and A Decade Long Exposure: the Central Academy of Fine Arts and Chinese Contemporary Photography (Shanghai: Shanghai Literature and Art Publishing Group, 2010).

Amy CHENG, born in 1970, is an independent curator and art critic. Amy Cheng lives and works in Taipei, Taiwan. From 1997 to 1999, Cheng served as a lecturer of western art history at Fu-Jen Catholic University. From 2000 to 2005, she lived in Vancouver, Canada and worked as a feature writer for Taiwan ARTCO magazine, where she currently works as the leading feature writer. Since 2003, Amy Cheng has curated exhibitions, including Ruins and Civilization in Taipei (2004); the 2004 Taipei Biennial: Do You Believe in Reality? (co-curated); Altered States in Taipei (2006); THTP/Phase Five/Oversight/2008 at the Vancouver Centre for Contemporary Asian Art(2008); Traversing the Fantasy at Taipei’s TheCube Project Space (2010); Taiwan Pavilion at the 54th Venice Biennale: The Heard & The Unheard: Soundscape Taiwan (Venice, 2011); Re-envisioning Society Series Exhibitions (Taiepi, 2012-13); Unhomely: Tales of the Island (Manchester, 2012); The 3rdTaiwan International Video Art Exhibition: Melancholy in Progress (co-curated, 2012), and Shamans and Dissent (Hong Kong, 2013). In 2009, Cheng undertook the one-year project, Critical Political Art and Curatorial Practice Research, as well as established the related website and released the publication, Art and Society: Introducing Seven Contemporary Artists. With the music and cultural critic, Jeph Lo, she founded Taipei’s TheCube Project Space in 2010, which aims to explore local culture, to study Taiwan sound culture, to establish long-term relationships with artists and to promote contemporary art exchanges between Taiwan and the international community.

CHEN Chieh-Jen was born in 1960 in Taoyuan, Taiwan and graduated from a vocational high school for the arts. He currently lives and works in Taipei, Taiwan. Chen’s primary media of creations is video installation. His works were internationally exhibited in some major art events or exhibitions. Chen believes that with the long-term domination and the overlapping of multiple sovereignty in historical and political situation, people’s spirit has been completely broken and the society turns out to lose itself and be unable to reflect on the past and to look forward at the future. Back to creating in 1996, Chen started collaborating with local residents, unemployed laborers, day workers, migrant workers, foreign spouses, unemployed youth and social activists. He formed a temporary community and a filmmaking team with those marginalized by society, social activists and filmmakers. They have learned from each other, occupied factories owned by capitalists, slipped into areas cordoned off by the law and utilized discarded materials to build sets for his video productions. In order to visualize contemporary reality and people’s history that was obscured by a society of the spectacle, Chen embarks on a series of video projects with the concept of “re-imagining, re-narrating, re-writing and re-connecting.”

Sun Yi Jou, born in 1988, is a freelance artist. Sun graduated from Taipei National University of Arts. Her exhibition, “TFAM: Taipei Flat Arts Museum”, exhibition of installation, video, photo and document (Taipei Contemporary Art Center, 2011), was set up at the square in front of Taipei Fine Arts Museum for five weeks. This work was created in order to taunt with the scandal of the museum. Her important group exhibitions include: 2012 Zhongshan Park Project and Memory of a City of 9thShanghai Biennale (Shanghai, 2012).

Sarah Fisher is the Director of Centre for Chinese Contemporary (formerly Chinese Arts Centre), and she has previously worked as the Head of Visual Arts for Arts Council, NW? and as a freelance arts consultant for a range of arts organizations and agencies.She is also as an artist and lecturer at the Slade School of Art and Chelsea College of Art in London. She is currently the Chair of FACT (Foundation for Art and Creative Technology) Liverpool and Axisweb, Leeds?.

Lindsay Taylor is a British art curator. She is responsible for leading the development and the implement of the strategic vision for the contemporary art collection at the University of Salford. She has instigated a number of key partnerships, including the collaboration with the Centre for Chinese Contemporary Art in Manchester and the project with Islington Mill, the leading artist of cross-disciplinary organization in Salford. Lindsay is interested in artistic practice that is about “the now” and is focusing on creations in 3 main areas: 1) Contemporary Chinese Art, in partnership with the CFCCA, making response to ‘China’s century’; 2) About the Digital, reflecting the presence of University at MediaCity UK and the practice of using new technologies and 3) Artists in the North of England, supporting and developing the artistic ecology of the area. Lindsay has been in post since May 2013. She is in charge of Cao Fei’s Haze and Fog with the CFCCA in 2013 and is working with the CFCCA on the Asia Triennial exhibition for 2014. Previously, she led the contemporary art exhibition programs at the Harris Museum and Art Gallery in Preston, including the development of the new media artwork. Earlier positions include at Tate Liverpool and National Museums Liverpool (Walker Art Gallery). Lindsay is a board member of IOU, a company based in Yorkshire that creates multi-disciplinary artwork for the public realm, and is the co-chair of Contemporary Visual Arts Manchester Network.

 

文字紀錄

工作坊的第一場演講由本屆曼城三年展的台灣代表藝術家姚瑞中主持,到場與談人包括TCAC理事長鄭美雅、立方空間負責人鄭慧華及曼徹斯特亞洲三年展策展人姜節泓、Sarah Fisher、Lindsey Taylor。

曼徹斯特亞洲三年展

曼徹斯特亞洲三年展由藝術組織Shisha於2008年首辦,與亞洲藝術組織、藝術家合作,呈現亞洲當代藝術風貌。今年,展覽邁入第三屆,三位與談的策展人來自參展單位之一的華人當代藝術中心。姚瑞中由地域與藝術發展的角度切入,率先對策展人們提問。

首問即:「華人當代藝術中心為何在曼城?」。Sarah Fisher表示:華人藝術中心的成立宗旨,是在文化多元紛呈的曼徹斯特為華人藝術代言,提供藝術家發表的平台。在過去十年,藝術中心不僅展出世界各地華人藝術家的作品,更提供他們進駐空間。值得一提的是,藝術家們雖有華人血緣,作品卻未必與「華人主題」連結。組織近期目標在關注全球性的華人論題,尤其是作品在不同國家與文化間轉譯的內容與概念,為此,他們增加和英國畫廊、博物館合作的機會,深入了解華人藝術家看待跨國議題的態度。

本次三年展,華人藝術中心和曼城的六間博物館合作,並邀請英國各地的策展人和藝術家,針對相關作品探討華人藝術家的方法論。地點設定在英國曼城,恰好呈現給歐洲觀眾別開生面的藝術風景。

針對「亞洲三年展為何在曼城」,姜節泓沒有正面回應,卻反問「亞洲在哪裡?」認為這是對政治與文化的雙重提問。他說,地域有其有限性,發生的內外部效應容易彼此混淆,成立工作坊的目的,除了邀請藝術家提出方案,有效回應外,更致力於轉譯工作。

針對「亞洲三年展的方向」,姜節泓解釋:每屆三年展都有主題,由曼徹斯特城市大學設定。今年的主題是「亞洲的社會衝突」,以藝術回應衝突中產生的憐憫與同情。

展覽中,策展工作和藝術實踐雙軌並行,但又須有所連結,他期望透過藝術家領導工作坊(Artist Let)的形式,有效落實作品生產及呈現。他補充,華人當代藝術中心已成為三年展中規模最大的項目,約三十多位來自港中台的藝術家參與。他們自訂的標題為「Harmony Society」,構想來自中國政府的標語「和諧社會」,但為強調西方由遠處觀看亞洲的簡單化視角,刻意譯作「天下無事」。

由在地世界觀看生產機制

三年展介紹完畢,姚瑞中轉向鄭美雅與鄭慧華發問,請兩人就各自由職掌藝術組織的經驗,談台灣的社會問題與藝術的應對之道。

鄭慧華舉出姚瑞中《海市蜃樓》的出版計畫,以其文化生產的廢棄問題呼應工作坊命題「歷史灰燼中被掩蓋的全球文化潛殖民」,引申探討廢墟的意義。她引用班雅明「語言、思想也會不斷被廢棄」的概念,指稱所謂「廢墟」不僅是物理空間,今日社會所面臨的難題也有形構出精神廢墟的可能,其中涉及三個主要的過程:如何被拋棄?如何被遺忘?又如何被整編?

她形容當代資本主義社會有如一個巨大的引擎,必須不停吸收、生產,轉化為價值,藝術生產在機制中不得不有所放棄,然而它所拋棄的事物是否確實應遭棄?拋棄致使遺忘,遺忘使記憶改寫,究竟被遺忘與被改寫的是甚麼?在這雙重前提下,事物被重新整編,成為新的階序制度。現在藝術生產體系面臨的,就是這三個複合性的挑戰。

她接著提問:為什麼西方城市需要亞洲三年展?為什麼亞洲城市不停生產當代藝術展覽?思索此類的問題時,不需將東西二分,因二元對立無法解決複雜的現況,問題的根源還在非西方區域知識生產的狀態如何與為何形成如今藝術生產體系的型式和語言。

她提到Homi Bhabha的「在地的世界觀」,與當今盛行的全球世界觀對峙。她認為,我們的世界觀是單一的、同心圓式的,以全球的視角俯看,由上而下整編我們的知識、語言乃至藝術生產。我們應思索如何自轉,以俯蹲的姿態回歸在地觀點,這是在地藝術實踐的挑戰。

去年,立方空間在藝術家陳界仁的樹林片廠舉辦講座,題目俱圍繞在生產系統,其中,黃建宏提到的潛殖民問題,也是這次工作坊的命題內涵。它不只指出殖民/被殖民的明確對象,更談及殖民在現代運作中,如何滲透、深化到生產機制,在我們尋求對應時,切忌落入東方與西方、亞洲和他者的對立中。

鄭美雅以個人的實用(practice)經驗為出發,認為本地的藝術生產與計畫經常因缺乏明確的標誌(signature)而在快速的生產過程中被物件化、視覺化甚或消失。亞洲在地不乏小型機構試圖挑戰藝術生產的形式(如印尼的Rangrupa),就在它與市場產生關連時,其危險與有趣之處卻都在殖民討論。一如反全球化的手段恰是全球化的運動與串聯,兩者無法明確區隔、標誌出地域關係。但假設相同的社會環境(地域、血統、文化、語言)可以被區隔,標籤概念又會模糊本質性的焦點。

鑒此,她呼籲共同體需要更多微型的實踐,即使身在同地,想法仍需溝通,TCAC便試圖建立討論的平台。

姚瑞中說,藝術文化須要消費者與管道進行生產,在地的管道不足,加上歐美大展在亞洲進行橫的殖民。在重商主義的發展下,亞洲國家競相提供經濟產值,不斷收編與拋棄、抹除記憶,如台灣對文化的概念還停留在將文化具體化作價值交換。近期的黃色小鴨便是顯例,人們在意其版權、產權、周邊效益更勝美學問題。再如許多文創園區以相同模式複製、擴大,消滅了藝術生產及其解放性。

唯有透過檔案的再考掘、再書寫,才有可能產生新觀點。微型機構的小革命已然在全球化掌控的大機制中緩慢浮現,透過個人行動或網路的集結試圖改造社會。這些動員與整編的方法或許原始,效益卻超乎預期。台灣社會由消費結構導向了稅制、健保、農耕、司法等問題,藝術雖無法達成解決卻可積極回應,如此,TCAC與立方空間的工作便格外重要。

藝術批評及創造力

姜節泓以策展人的思維向所有對談人提問:第一,展覽作為當代藝術傳播的途徑,如何評估有限展期中,觀眾識讀內容的有效性?第二,藝術生產針砭問題的批評性無可非議,但提問時不應忽略創造力,應如何在兩者間取得平衡?

姚瑞中以《海市蜃樓》「出版代替展覽」的路徑為例,強調由藝術家的身分產出作品可以保護作品不受當局封殺,但將實際的出版品寄給有關單位又可達成藝術展覽無法企及的有效性,讓藝術力量在社會中被傳播、被討論。

鄭美雅舉出花博論壇、美術館是平的、藝術家職業工會等近乎社會運動的例子,認為不能只聚焦於這些計畫的產出,發生影響的場域同樣重要。姚瑞中動員學生關懷鄉土、陳界仁在北美館邀請藝術家聲援派遣工,他們已然打破展覽的形式,過程中社會關係的改變本身即具有藝術性。

藝術家能改變什麼?鄭慧華引述陳界仁的話:「改變是點滴工程。」回應第一個提問。她認為:藝術家應相信努力在時間烘焙下的成果,然而,當代藝術面臨的正是求新、求快,唯獨不求好想法的操作方式,激發不出創造力,我們理當重新審視知識生產與批評。

第二個問題則可以簡化為:你說的話要怎麼被聽到?她特別舉打開當代近來舉辦的「理解的尺度—台泰藝術交流展」,指出亞洲國家普遍面臨藝術思考體系僵化,認為這是問題面向之一。縱觀官方合作的駐村地點,多為巴黎、紐約、柏林,彷彿對國際、藝術知識生產的想像勢必通過此一路徑方告完成,打開當代如今實驗的,便是如何打破慣用路徑,和鄰近區域產生連結,這是自我反思的一步。

接著談創造性,受到大眾青睞的文化創意常和商業結合,落實到文化創業, 但更深層的卻是文化創造。

姚瑞中同意亞洲地域欠缺平行交流,反而更熟悉歐美脈絡。駐村近乎換個地點去創作,未必和當地有連結,打開當代的計畫更為周延,藝術家在泰國當地常駐,和當地人密切交流,作品在台泰兩地都有展覽。

如今東南亞地區反而羨慕台灣藝術有政府支持,他們靠的是一群對當代藝術有堅持的藝術家進行革命性活動。然而,政府資源產生收編問題,助力時而是創造的阻力,比如公共藝術的高獲利,使藝術家純粹的創作轉變到服務業主或普羅大眾的境地。

現在的東南亞有許多思想交流檔案建構,透過藝術行動進行系統式記憶的解放,重新建構被遺忘的歷史,如台灣高俊宏對海山煤礦事件的重探,透過個人式的書寫,看見受難者被壓抑的生命史。

鄭美雅點出:當亞洲論述作為方法,在官方層次中可能有和藝術家不同的解讀。如台灣現在有許多新移民家庭,促使政府眼光轉向,可能建立東南亞駐村,看似結果相同,但背後與藝術家的反省角度卻不同。此外,如果我們特定討論亞洲區域,會發現市場的擴張和經濟息息相關,如中國作為開發中大國,對藝術收藏的探索已形成新的領域和剝削。

她最後強調,無論任何的展覽或作品都需找到適合的情境與環境,可以呼應作品本身,才能彰顯其藝術性。

界定亞洲

最後,與談人及觀眾的討論回歸到亞洲的定位。

姜節泓提到策展時不可能完整集結所有亞洲國家的藝術家,自然形成「不被選入的就不是亞洲嗎?」等問題。

Sarah Fisher笑稱和Lindsey工作,試圖組織新的華人當代藝術本身便是不可能的,辦三年展更不可能,藝術家代表的是個人而非國家,就像威尼斯雙年展的展館中,要參展代表都是該國最好的藝術家也是不可能的,這些集結「儘管不可能,卻仍有價值」觀眾代表自身的地方,參觀過程可以反映出另一種地方論述。

一位觀眾問鄭慧華:沒有固定端點,如何測量世界?藝術家究竟為誰發聲?王虹凱在MOMA做的《咱的做工進行曲》如何被測量?又是被誰測量?

鄭慧華特別指出:世界觀視野不是地理上的,世界大於移動。藝術生產與資本有關,資本如何建構藝術世界的版圖,藝術流通的方式是甚麼?資本固然是個大引擎,但我們應該順服它的邏輯嗎?當我們理所當然的援用西方知識時,我們已漏失自己的語言,少了和藝術間的關係,只有對自身的體認和質疑,才能真正談藝術版圖中的邊緣。王宏凱的藝術在分配系統中相對弱勢,不像Jeremy Dylan使用的符號或許大過個人名氣,過去許多事物不曾進入我們的眼界,相互觀看是了解的開始。

一位觀眾質疑:將亞洲作為新方法仍是十分歐洲的思考,仍在複製我們對歐洲的提問。鄭美雅同意操作上的確可能落入類似的迷思或窠臼。

 

The first speech is hosted by Taiwanese artist, Yao Jui-Chung and guests including Cheng Mei-ya, the chairman of TCAC, Cheng Amy, the founder of TheCube Project Space, and Jian Jie-Hong, Sarah Fisher, and Lindsey Taylor, curators from the Asia Triennial Manchester.

Asia Triennial Manchester

Asia Triennial Manchester was first held in 2008 by art organization- Shisha. They collaborated with many other Asian art organizations and artists to present the spirit of Asian contemporary art. Starting from the perspective of the relationship between a region and the development of art, Yao Jui-Chung was the first to present this question to the curators.

“Why is the center of Chinese contemporary art in Manchester?” the curators were asked. “The main purpose of the Center for Chinese Contemporary Art is to create platform in Manchester where it is culturally diverse and offering it as a stage to represent Chinese contemporary works” replied by Sarah Fisher. In the past decade, the art center not only showed works from Chinese artist but instead it also offered space to artist from all over the world. The current goal of the organization focuses on the international Chinese issues, especially the interpretation of different contents and concepts of certain artworks within various nations and cultures. Therefore, they increase the collaboration with multiple galleries and museums in England; to deeply understand the perspective that the Chinese artists have on global issues.

This year, the Center for Chinese Contemporary Art worked with six museums in Manchester and invited a panel of curators and artists in England to discuss the Chinese artist’s methodology through related works. Because the event was held in Manchester, England, it helped Europeans gain a new perspective on art through the different style and features of Chinese Contemporary Art.

To the question, why the Asia Triennial is held in Manchester, Jian Jie-Hong didn’t respond directly but asked “where is Asia?” This question can be seen through both cultural and political lens. He said that there are limitations among regions and the internal and external disputes. The purpose of the workshops is not just to invite artist for their ideas and interpretation but also to help effectively translate.

There exists limitations within a region and the external and internal effects easily causes confusion, he said. In addition to the invitation to the artists to respond with a proposal in effective, the purpose to set up the workshop is more about the efforts on translation and interpretation.

The direction of the Asia Triennial, Jian Jie-Hong explained that every Asia Triennial has each topic decided by Manchester Metropolitan University. The topic this year is the social conflict in Asia with emphasizes on contradictions between compassion and sympathy in art.

During exhibition, the work of curating and productioning artworks often seem like two independent task yet they go hand in hand for the execution of a successful exhibition. He hopes through his workshop “Artist Let” led by different artist he can effectively carry out the production (making) and presentation (curating) of artworks as one. He adds that the Center for Chinese Contemporary Art is the biggest section in the Triennial and more than 30 artists from Hong Kong, China and Taiwan participate in it. They set the title, Harmony Society, from the concept of the Chinese government’s slogan, 和諧社會. However, to emphasize to consolidate ideas of the far east from the west to, the original Chinese slogan “和諧社會” is intentionally translated into天下無事.

Form the local to see the producing mechanism

After the introduction of the Triennial, Yao Jui-Chung raised the question of social problems and the ways of dealing with art in Taiwan to Mei-ya Cheng and Amy Cheng, asking for a discussion from their personal experiences as chairs of art organizations.

Cheng Amy took Yao Jui-Chung’s publication plan of Mirage as an example. To raise the issue of abandoning cultural production reflects the title of the workshop and further extending to a discussion on how waste are defined. (~as an example to raise the issue of abandoning cultural production which reflects the title of the workshop, furthermore, to extend to a discussion on how wastes are defined.)She cited Benjamin’s concept of language and concepts are constantly being abandoned. She pointed out that “wastes” not only exist in the physical or actual spaces but also, within the modern society, it is possible to have a mental waste caused by challenges we face in everyday life. There are three main processes: how to be abandoned, how to be forgotten, and how to be rationalized?

She uses a giant engine as the metaphor for a modern capitalist society because it keeps taking in, producing and transforming the input into capital. In this cruel process it is inevitable for art to abandon some of its components. However the components that are sacrificed in the process are often victims of the system. Yet those abandoned are often forgotten, then leading to a modification of its memory. But what are the underling meanings of something that is forgotten and revised? Under such premises things are getting restructured, creating a new hierarchy. The art production systems are facing these three complex challenges of being abandoned, forgotten and changed. .

She continued to ask why there have to be an Asia Triennial in a western country and why Asian countries keep producing exhibitions of contemporary art. When facing these types of questions, it is unnecessary to use dichotomy to divide things into two because it’s not that appropriate when facing complex situation. The question originates from how the production of knowledge is shaped and formed in eastern regions and the production of art systems, its shape and language in the present day society.

She mentioned that Homi Bhabha’s “Local World Perspective” and present day worldwide world perspective seem like two contradictory ideas. However she feels that global perspective should be a singular concentric concept, from a worldwide perspective overlooking and framing our knowledge, language and artistic productions. We should reflect upon how we operate, from a low standing point back to our local perspective that is the challenge of practicing local art.

Last year, during artist Jieren Chen’s lecture, his topic focused around different production systems. During the discussion Jenhong Huang mentioned the hidden colonial problem which is also the underlying message of the current workshops. The workshops are not just limited to those who have be colonized or the colonizers (Not only did he point out specifically the colonizers or those who have been colonized) but also raised discussions on how colonization operates in the modern society, in addition, how this penetrates and expands to the structure of production. As we seek for parallelism yet wanting to fall into an eastern or western category, Asia and others become seems to become opposites. (It’s relatively important to not fall into an eastern/western or Asia/others category when seeking for parallelism.)

Meiya Cheng from her personal practice experience thinks that regional art production and design often lack a clear signature and through the rapid production process artworks are often objectified and visualized or even loses its original outlook. Asia doesn’t lack small institutions or organizations that challenge the structure of art production systems (such as the Indonesian Rangrupa) yet when linked with different markets, its dangers and interests are still at hands of the colonial discussion. Just like anti-globalization lever and globalization movements cannot be clearly separated, marking regional relations. (or mapped with regional relations.)Even if similar backgrounds (region, nationality, culture, language) can be separated, the concept of labeling would be blurred from its original focus.

In light of this, she calls for more micro-practices to create a community because although we may be from the same places or have things in common, communication is still very important therefore she wants to use TCAC as a platform for means of communication.

Ruzhong Tao says that art culture needs consumers and connections to fabricate, local connections isn’t enough and additionally the American and European colonial influences have already cross the pacific. In a society that focuses on commercialization, the revenue that Asian countries create are repeatedly being merged and abandoned, erased from memory. For example Taiwan’s take on cultural ideas is still at the level where they try to define and objectify the idea of culture into revenue. If we take the yellow duck can be seen as a good example, (The yellow duck can be seen as a good example,) people are more focused on the copyright, property right and other surrounding earnings more than the aesthetic issues. By creating multiple creative artist parks is just another way to copy and mass produce items that are sold as “art” defeating the real process of art and its freedoms.

Only by digging through old documents and writing books can we figure out a new outlook on production. Although globalization is still at hands to the overarching system through incorporating personal action and social media, micro-organization’s small revolutions are coming slowly to the surface in attempt to change of the society. These movements and restructuring may create benefits beyond imagination. The consumer structure of Taiwanese society leads to taxation, health insurance, agricultural and legal problems. Although art may not be able to solve such problems however can help react to such problems in a positive way thus TCAC and Lifang Space become critical places.

As curator, Jiehong Jang presented two questions to the discussion panelist: 1. Curation is a path that contemporary artist must take to spread knowledge of their works, but how would you evaluate if viewers are effectively understanding the content of the work in a limited amount of time? 2. Art production put forth the problem of critical justification but when questioned creatively cannot be ignore how do you balance the two? ( It is undoubted that art production amend problems effectively ,it is now the question of how we balance it when creativity is needed.)

Juichung Yao uses《海市蜃樓》「出版代替展覽」as a way to emphasize that using an artist’s identity to produce work can protect works from being blocked by authorities. Yet mailing direct artworks to associated organizations can also create a larger effect that an art exhibition (cannot reach), creating larger spread of ideas and discussions among the society.

Yamei Cheng started flora expo forums, art museums is flat, an art profession and are closely related social movements, ( Yamei Cheng took flora expo forums, art museum is flat and the art creator union that are closely related to social movements as examples) she believes that the focus of art cannot be just on the design and production but the effects and aftermaths are just as important.

What can an artist change? Huihua Cheng quotes Jieren Chen “Change is bit by bit projects.” to reply to the first question. She thinks that artist should believe that hard work and time can produce good results. Yet in contemporary art faces demands for new, fast and not good ideas and precise process thus hard to spark imagination therefore we must reevaluate the production and critique of art.

The second question can be simplified into: how do you let others hear you voice? She used a recent event “Understanding the Limits-Taiwan Thailand art exchange exhibition” to point out that a common problem among countries is that the thinking process for artist is being rigid. (Looking back from the official residency spots, we see Paris, New York and Berlin, it’s as if we have to cross this path when imagining international and art knowledge production. What we experiment nowadays is how to break the existing paths and to have connections with near-by areas which is a step of self-reflection.)

Then the discussion turned to creativity, cultural creativity is something that is appreciated by all ages and is often combined with commerce; yet that often leads to cultural entrepreneurship then deeper to cultural creativity.  (Yet when implemented in cultural entrepreneurship, is it the cultural creativity that effects deeper.)

Juichung Yao agree that Asia lacks parallel exchange, consequently we are more familiar with European and American exchanges. Artist in residence program is just changing the location of the artist and where they create their works. The works don’t have to be necessary influenced by the local environment.  However these residency programs helps spread contemporary art, for example the artist that worked in Thailand was able to talk and have close communication with the locals thus enabling them to have exhibitions of their works both in Thailand and Taiwan.

However Southeast Asian regions envy Taiwan’s government support in art, since their art depends on a group of people who have a passion for contemporary art and insist on supporting artist revolutionary activities. Although government resources can cause problems in production, support often becomes an obstacle to creativity. For instance, public art produces high profits, in result leading artist not to purely create but to make works that the general public would appreciate for certain environments or to make works as a consumer good.

A lot of current East Asian artistic inspiration and ideas are towards reconstructing the fading past and forgotten events in history. Likewise in Taiwan Junhong Gao presented this research through people and books on the Seamount Mine Incident, a surprised and abandoned part of Taiwanese History.

Meiya points out that an artist and a government affiliated organization sees and interprets things differently when presenting on a discussion forum.  As the current Taiwanese upflow of immigration comes to light for the Taiwanese government, possibly construction of East Asian villages become in questions, yet the reason and perspective of an artist and government behind such issues are dramatically different. Furthermore if we focus just toward the Asian region, we can see the expansion of market and consumer products are closely netted with the economy, even as China, a large developing country, when faced towards art collection it is still a new region of exploration.

Finally, she wants to emphasize that no matter what exhibition or artwork it needs to be accompanied by a fitted environment and surrounding that can echo the work itself and enabling it to highlight its artistic qualities.

Lastly, the discussion turned back to the location of Asian.

Jiehong Jiang mentioned that it is not possible for an exhibition to include artist of all Asian countries and regions, therefore causing a problem when defining what it means to be an “Asian countries” are those places that aren’t selected not part of Asia?

Sarah Fisher chuckled that working with Lindsey and creating a groups of new Chinese contemporary art itself is impossible but creating a three year exhibition is even more ridiculous. Artist often represent themselves and not their nationalities, like the Vienna Biennale exhibition it is possible that those who are part of the exhibition are the best of their nations. (Take the Venice Biennale exhibition for example, It is unlikely that those who are part of the exhibition are the best of their nations.) This combine “Those impossible, yet still have value” viewers represent their place the process of the visit can be seen as another narrative that reflects the place.

One as Huihai Cheng (One of the viewer ased Huihai Cheng): if there isn’t a fixed endpoint, how would you measure the world? Who would artist speak for and represent? Hongkai Wong made “咱的做工進行曲”at MOMA, how would that be measured and by who?

Huihai Chen mentioned that the perspective view of the work isn’t just on the surface or geographical, the work is larger than its movements. Art production and capital is closely related, yet how does capital structure the artwork and its domain, what is the mode of artistic exchange? Capital is a large engine, but should we follow its logic? When we use western knowledge, we often close grasp of our own language. Without the relationship between the arts, only self-recognition and doubt can we (differenciate) the true boundaries of the artistic territory. Hongkei Wong is at a disadvantage when faced with Jeremy Dylan using his symbols that are more popular than himself. In the past, a lot of things come unexpectedly to our vision watching each other become the start of understanding.

An audience in doubts that to use Asia as a new method is still a pretty European ideal, thus referring back to the European question. Meiya agrees that the operations have its flaws and stereotypical or mythical directions.